Even defense companies did not always receive the right amount of fuel.

Even defense companies did not always receive the right amount of fuel.

Even defense companies did not always receive the right amount of fuel.

Modern historian T. Gunchak notes: “On the one hand, he was beaten by Russians, trying to drive out of him a sense of national consciousness and self-esteem, on the other – he was mocked by Austrians and Hungarians, accusing him of Russophilia. “

At the end of 1916, positional warfare was again waged on the fronts, including the Southwest.

Rich in military and political events was 1917. In Russia, the February bourgeois-democratic revolution won, as a result of which the autocracy was overthrown and the Provisional Government (TU) came to power. There was a prospect of ending the war. But TU stood on the position of continuing the war until the “victorious end”.

The TU offensive led to the defeat of Russian troops in Galicia and Bukovina. Once again, the western Ukrainian lands became the scene of bloody battles.

After the turbulent events in Russia, which will be considered in detail later, on October 25 (November 7 in the new style) in 1917, the Bolsheviks came to power in Petrograd as a result of a coup. TU were overthrown, in December, Lenin’s government begins peace talks.

The Austrian command was in no hurry to introduce the “usus” into battle, as it was not sure of their loyalty.

From now on, after a successful test, the Austrian command sent “usus” to the most dangerous parts of the front. In 1915-1916 they took part in battles with units of the Russian army near Halych, Brzezany, near the town of Kozova. But the greatest courage and heroism of the “usus” was witnessed in the battles for the mountains Makivka and Lysenya.

During the bloody battles for Mount Makivka in the Carpathians, which lasted during April 1915, the “usus” had to become the main strike force. It was in the battles for Makivka that a turning point in military operations in favor of the German-Austrian allies took place. “Ususy” went on the offensive and in June were the first to enter Halych.

In July 1915, a USS regiment of 2,200 soldiers was formed, commanded by G. Kossak. Having suffered heavy losses in battle, the regiment was withdrawn to the rear for reform and only in early May 1916 returned to the front.

During August-September, the regiment withstood artillery fire and continuous attacks by Russian troops during the Brusylovsky breakthrough. Another mountain – Lysonya, on which the “usus” were fixed, became the place of their heroic glory. Once surrounded, the USS regiment ceased to exist. The remnants of the “usus” were sent for the second time for reformation and replenishment, in the winter of 1917. they were in the trenches again. At the beginning of 1918, the creation of the USS tent, the most capable part of the then Ukrainian led by E. Konovalets, was completed in Kyiv. This was the first attempt to organize the Ukrainian National Army.

With the start of the war, the demand for fuel, especially coal, increased sharply. With the loss of the Dombrowski Coal Basin (Poland) in 1915 and the cessation of coal imports, Donbass remained the only supplier of dollars. All over the country. Its total production here from 1,544 million poods in the peaceful year of 1913 reached only 1,744 million poods in three years. Although the number of hired workers who went down to the slaughter has increased. Paradox?

Even defense companies did not always receive the right amount of fuel. The country was experiencing an acute energy crisis.

Gradually the devastation engulfed the railways. There was a shortage of locomotives, wagons, coal, and a terrible disaster loomed, paralyzing transport. At the beginning of 1916, 150,000 wagons of unloaded goods were concentrated at railway stations.

1/2 able-bodied men were mobilized from the villages of Ukraine to the army. The sown area decreased by 1,880,000 acres, the yield decreased by an average of 8%, and the grain harvest decreased by 200 million poods annually.

In 1917, out of 4 million peasant farms in Ukraine, 640,000 had no crops, 1,400,000 were horseless, and 1,142,000 had no cows.

The increase in economic decline was exacerbated by the disorder of money circulation. To cover the huge military costs, tsarism increased primarily the issuance of paper money, backed by gold by only 14-15%. Direct and indirect taxes increased, domestic and foreign debts accumulated.

All this placed a heavy burden on the working masses.

The working day increased, at many enterprises it lasted 15-16 hours; With the beginning of the war, nominal wages fell in a number of factories and plants, in particular those working for the needs of the front; Prices for food and consumer goods jumped sharply, for example, in 1916 they increased 4-8 times for basic necessities.

Every day the food crisis worsened. Thousands of queues near bread shops have become a typical phenomenon in cities. Soldiers often received no more than half of their normal rations.

From the spring of 1915, under the influence of a significant deterioration in the economic situation of the workers, as well as under the influence of defeats on the fronts, the strike struggle throughout the country, in particular in Ukraine, began to grow again. Strikes of workers of mines and factories of Donbass were long and mass.

Thus, the deterioration of the economic situation, the defeat of the tsarist troops on the fronts, the strike struggle of the workers led to the development of the peasant movement.

There are more and more cases of seizure of landlord’s land for eating crops and hayfields, deforestation. At the same time, since 1915, such manifestations of peasant disobedience as refusal to pay taxes, opposition to requisitions of food and cattle, and so on, have become widespread. The general statistics of disobedience to the authorities are impressive; In total, from August 1914 to the end of 1916, more than 160 peasant demonstrations were recorded in Ukraine, including 50 in Podillya, 32 in Kyiv, and 28 in Kharkiv https://123helpme.me/narrative-essay-topics/. arrests and imprisonment of factory workers and activists.

Forms of trench protest were varied. Soldiers deserted, refused to go into battle, killed hated officers, surrendered, etc., and sometimes began fraternizing with enemy soldiers.

On October 25-27, 1918, an uprising took place in Kremenchuk, where up to 6,000 soldiers gathered at the distribution point. They refused to go to the front, beat and dispersed the officers, and released the arrested comrades from prison. The uprising was suppressed by a punitive detachment sent from Kyiv.

A similar demonstration took place in December 1916 in Kharkiv, when he refused to take up the position of the 222nd Regiment of the 34th Corps of the Special Army. There were more and more such facts.

03/03/2013

World War I and Ukraine. Abstract

The First World War of 1914-1918 had a huge impact on the fate of mankind. It was caused by a sharp escalation of contradictions between the main capitalist states.

It was the struggle of the imperialist countries for the redistribution of the world, for markets and sources of raw materials. So it was an unjust war of aggression.

In 1914 there were two large groups of states: the Trinity Alliance, which included Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, and the Entente, or the Triple Alliance, England, France, and Russia. Already during the war, Italy withdrew from the Triple Alliance and was joined by Turkey and Bulgaria, forming the Fourth Alliance. On the side of the Entente against Germany and its allies were Japan, Romania, Italy and the United States.

The First World War was Europe’s first horrific experience of modern warfare. The catastrophic scale of this conflict is evidenced by at least some statistics: the 33 countries that sooner or later took part in the war mobilized 65 million soldiers, of whom 10 million were killed and 20 million wounded. The civilian casualties were almost the same [subtle]. The war gained not only mass but also total character.

To support the vast armies that fought at the front, entire societies with their economies harnessed themselves to the chariot of war. The growing losses led to a terrible tension on the fronts and in the rear, exposing and deepening the fatal political and socio-economic shortcomings of the old imperial orders of Europe. As a result, for Germany, the Turkish and Austro-Hungarian empires (the so-called Central Powers), and the Russian Empire, which, along with Britain, France, and the United States, were part of the Entente, the war eventually became a struggle for self-destruction.

Aiming to seize foreign lands in the war, Germany planned to annex Ukrainian lands that were part of Russia. Trying to mislead the Ukrainian people, they announced the creation of “Independent Ukraine” under its auspices. In fact, it was a matter of creating a colony from which Germany would draw agricultural products, raw materials, coal, ore and other wealth and sell the goods of its industry, as well as a springboard for its penetration to the east, to Asia … The ruling circles of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy dreamed of the conquest of all of Ukraine and its transformation into an integral part of “Greater Austria”.

The intentions of tsarist Russia, which aimed to annex Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathian Ukraine, did not differ in any way, stating that it was about the annexation of ancient “Russian” lands to Russia.

Due to its geopolitical position, Ukraine inevitably became an area of ​​interest for hostile coalitions, a center of confrontation. The consequences of the war for Ukrainians forced to fight on both sides of the war were immediate, immediate and severe. Divided between the two main rivals throughout Ukraine, Ukraine served as the scene of the largest and bloodiest massacres on the Southwestern Front. (particularly in Galicia), its population suffered terrible damage from the destruction and devastation caused by hostilities, as well as the brutality of both the Russian and Austrian commands.

But along with the physical losses, the war further aggravated the fate of Ukrainians who did not have a state of their own to protect their specific interests.

A huge number of Ukrainians (there were 3.5 million Ukrainian soldiers in the Russian army and 250,000 served in the Austrian army) fought and died for empires that not only ignored their national interests, but also actively tried, like Russia, to destroy their national movement … The worst thing was that Ukrainians, as participants in the fighting on both sides, were forced to kill each other.

With the beginning of the First World War, Ukrainian political parties found themselves in a particularly difficult and difficult situation.

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