19 Mar Summer in the region begins in late May and lasts until the second decade of September.
Summer in the region begins in late May and lasts until the second decade of September.
Slightly higher temperatures in January and rather high temperatures in July in the northern part of the region are explained by its location in the depression (Male Polissya), which is surrounded on the north and south by ledges of the Podil and Volyn uplands.
At all times of the year the territory of the region is under the influence of cyclones that form over the Atlantic Ocean. Invasion of the continental air masses into the region leads to significant temperature fluctuations in all seasons. In summer the temperature can rise to + 37 ° С, and in winter – to drop to -34 ° С. Differences in heat distribution in the region are important for the peculiarities of crop development.
Especially important are the indicators of the sum of temperatures for the period with average daily temperatures above 10 ° C, when favorable conditions for the development of crops. They are highest in the south of the region (2600 °), slightly lower in the north (2565 °) and lowest in the central part (2470 °).
The growing season in the region lasts 205-209 days. It begins in April and lasts until the end of October.
On the territory of the region there is a sufficient amount of precipitation (550-700 mm per year). Most of them in the west and northwest, the least – in the southeast. The greatest amount of precipitation falls in summer, the least – in winter. In summer there are often showers, often thunderstorms, and sometimes hail. Snow cover is formed in the second half of December and lasts, as a rule, until the first decade of March. Its thickness is insignificant (8-10 cm). In the second half of winter there are often blizzards, ice. During the year, the north-western and north-eastern winds prevail in the region, and in the summer the north-eastern winds prevail. The wind speed varies on average from 4.5 to 6.0 m / sec. Strong winds (over 11 m / sec.) Rarely blow, most often in winter and spring.
The seasons are clearly distinguished in the region. Each of them has its own characteristics. Winter occurs when the average daily temperature drops below 0 ° C. In Ternopil region it is short and soft, with frequent thaws. Winter is the longest in the central and eastern regions (up to 112 days), the shortest in the west and in the lowlands in the north (up to 104 days). The number of days with snow cover reaches 80-90. Thaws and sharp fluctuations in temperature in winter and early spring often damage winter crops.
Spring in the region begins in the second decade of March, after the transition of the average daily temperature through 0 ° C, and lasts until the last decade of May, after the transition of the average daily temperature in 15 ° C. The weather in the spring is very changeable: often the heat is suddenly replaced by a sharp cooling and vice versa. Repeated cooling in April and May, caused by the invasion of the northern winds, leads to frost. Spring ends when lilies of the valley and acacias bloom.
Summer in the region begins in late May and lasts until the second decade of September. It is longest in the south-eastern part of the region, and the shortest in the central part. In the first half of summer there are often short-term showers, heavy rainfall. Occasionally there is hail, accompanied by strong winds, which causes considerable damage to crops. Summer ends with the ripening of blackberries.
Autumn lasts from September to the end of November. The first half of it is marked by clear sunny days. The first frosts begin in mid-October. Already at the end of autumn snow falls in some places and there is ice on the roads.
According to the differences in climatic indicators on the territory of the region, three agro-climatic districts can be distinguished – northern, central and southern.
The northern district covers the territory of Zboriv, Zbarazh, Lanovets, Shum, Kremenets administrative districts. The sum of temperatures higher than 10 ° C is 2600 – 2550 ° C in this area. The average annual air temperature is almost 0.5 ° C lower than in the northern and southern parts of the region. The frost-free period lasts 160 – 165 days. Precipitation is over 650 mm per year.
The central district is also called “cold Podillya”. It includes Berezhany, Koziv, Pidhayetsk, Terebovlya, Ternopil, Pidvolochysk, Husiatyn districts. The sum of active temperatures here is 2400 – 2500 ° C. The average annual air temperature is + 6.8 ° C. Frost-free period – 150-165 days. The annual amount of precipitation varies from 600 to 650 mm.
The southern district includes the territory of Borshchiv, Buchach, Zalishchyk, Monastyrysk and Chortkiv districts. The sum of temperatures above 10 ° C ranges here from 2500 ° to 2700 ° C. The average annual air temperature is + 7.3 ° C, the frost-free period is 160-165 days, precipitation falls from 520 to 600 mm per year. This area is also called “warm Podillya”. Spring comes here almost two weeks faster than in the rest of the region.
Sufficient humidity and favorable temperature conditions are created throughout the region for growing crops in the forest-steppe zone, including winter and spring wheat, barley, rye, oats, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables and fodder crops. In the Southern agroclimatic region favorable conditions for growing heat-loving crops (tomatoes, grapes, peaches, apricots, etc.).
On the territory of the region there are climatic phenomena that negatively affect the development of crops. These include frosts, showers, hail and more. Frosts are especially in late spring and early autumn, because they lead to freezing of dangerous crops.
They are most common in the northern and central parts of the region, where cold Arctic air enters. Freezing of winter crops is observed in some winters, when there is no snow cover and the air temperature is quite low.
Climatic conditions of the region are favorable for recreation, they are best on the banks of the Dniester and its tributaries. The town of Zalishchyky, located in one of the meanders of the Dniester, is considered a climatic resort of the region.
Sea of Azov: general characteristics. Abstract
The formation of the water mass of the Sea of Azov is mainly due to water exchange with the Black Sea
The area of the Sea of Azov is 39 thousand km2, the volume of water is 290 km3. The average depth is 7.4 m, the maximum is 15 m. The Sea of Azov is the shallowest of the seas.
The relief of the sea basin resembles a saucer with a flat and flat bottom. The southern shores are hilly, steep, and the western shores are mostly low. Sandy spit – Arabatskaya Strelka, separates the sea from the sea Sivash. In the northwest are Obitychna, Berdyansk and Bilosarayskaya bays, separated from the sea by sand and shell spit. The largest bay is Taganrog.
The formation of the water mass of the Sea of Azov is mainly due to water exchange with the Black Sea. Much of the water is provided by river runoff, mainly in the Kuban and Don. It is spent mainly on evaporation. Due to precipitation, the sea receives three times less water per year than it evaporates.
The water temperature in the Sea of Azov during the year near the surface ranges from 32 ° C (in July) to 1 ° C (in January-February). Maximum summer temperatures occur only in some shallow areas near the coast, and on average they do not exceed 28 ° C. The average temperature in July-August is 24-25 ° C, and in winter it is close to 0 ° C.
Freezing begins in December, usually from the most desalinated Taganrog Bay. Drifting ice during strong winter storms forms hummocks. Crushing begins in late February in the southern part.
The salinity of the waters of the Sea of Azov decreases from the Kerch Strait (here near the bottom it reaches 17.6 ‰) to the Taganrog Bay (up to 8-4 ‰), the average salinity of the sea approaches 14 ‰.
In the sea under the influence of winds and inflow of river waters there is a circular current, directed counterclockwise.
In the Sea of Azov, with a relatively simple bottom relief with uniform depths and a peculiar salinity, the species composition of flora and fauna is poorer than in the Black Sea, but biomass productivity is extremely high.
Diamond algae, brown, red, green algae, seaweed, and microalgae predominate among the plants.
The animal world has about 400 species – from unicellular to fish and mammals. The latter are represented in the Sea of Azov by one species of dolphins – Azov. Tulk, anchovies, bulls, herring, pike perch, mullet, flounder, sturgeon and others are of industrial importance. Many freshwater fish species, as well as fish from the Black Sea come here for spawning. Artificial spawning grounds and fish farms are being set up to reproduce and expand the species composition of fish resources, especially sturgeon.
A kind of unique bay is Sivash. Separated from the sea by a narrow Arabian Arrow and connected by a small Strait of Genichesk, it feeds on the waters of the Sea of Azov. Due to intense evaporation, the water in the bay is very salty (average 60 ‰) and often reaches a state of brine (200 ‰). In the dry season, the surface of the estuaries sparkles with a salt crust, like an ice rink with artificial ice.
The bottom of Azov is promising for oil and natural gas production.
The ability of the sea to strengthen and improve human health is invaluable. Warm and gentle sea, bright and gentle sun, soaked in the scents of herbs and sea moisture, unique therapeutic muds encourage thousands of people here every year. A large number of recreation centers and sanatoriums are concentrated on the Azov coast of Arabatskaya Strelka, in the area of Berdyansk – a large mud resort.
Human economic activity has significantly worsened the natural state of the sea. Emissions of industrial effluents, municipal sewerage networks, livestock complexes, mineral fertilizers and pesticides washed away from the fields, etc., cause great damage. This leads to a reduction in the species composition of the organic world of the sea, as well professional lab report writers review as the spread of bacteria that cause disease in humans.
The Sea of Azov had extremely favorable conditions for the development of fish fauna due to good warming, lighting, mixing of waters, as well as the inflow of significant amounts of fresh water.